Ayuda de traducción - Aide de traduction - Assistenza di traduzione - Übersetzungsunterstützung
Contacts and sources of information - Coconut Industry Board, PO Box 204, Kingston 10, Jamaica
Occurrence - A disease of coconuts reported from St Elizabeth (1872); Montego Bay (Fawcett, 1891); Bud-Rot (Ashby, 1915); various (Bain, 1940; Briton-Jones, 1940); Bronze Leaf Wilt (Bain, 1937, 1940; 1946); West End Bud Rot or "Unknown" disease (Martyn 1945; 1948; 1949); Unknown Disease (Leach, 1946; Sturay, 1946-47); Lethal Yellowing (Nutman & Roberts, 1955). MLO were first identified in 1972 (Beakbane et al, 1972; Heinze et al, 1972; Plavsic-Banjac et al, 1972), tetracycline remission was achieved (Hunt et al, 1974) but vector studies were inconclusive (Johnson & Eden-Green, 1978).
Spread - St Elizabeth, 1872; Montego Bay, 1891; Attempts were made to stop the spread, for example by felling palms attacked by `Unknown Disease' - 12,652 in 1948-49 and 16,370 palms in 1949-50 (Trotman, A.E. (1948-50) Repts. Dept Agric. Jamaica, 1948-49 and 1949-50) but spread continued. Rio Bueno, 1959; Buff Bay, 1961, Caenwood & Fair Prospect, 1965; Agualta Vale, 1964; Highgate, 1966; St Thomas 1975. By 1978 the disease was epidemic in virtually all coconut growing areas of the island.
Currently active areas - Lethal yellowing is no longer epidemic in Jamaica, due to the replanting of the resistant Malayan Dwarf and the Maypan hybrid. However, it is present all around the island and is particularly active in expanding pockets especially near the coast. Sporadic outbreaks of Lethal Yellowing with unexpectedley high losses amongst Malayan Dwarf & Maypan, that were first reported from Jamaica and Florida by Howard et al in 1987, have become more widespread in Jamaica within recent years. Localised outbreaks of LY in the parish of Portland are looking almost as serious now as the LY epidemic did 30 years ago and losses are occuring amongst the famous Round Hill planting of red Malayan Dwarf that have resisted LY for 50 years.
Suspected new outbreaks - About the mid 1980s, at three large plantations in the west and northwest, there were unusually high levels of LY mortality in Malayan Dwarf and Maypan populations. After a severe hurricane in 1988, there was an increase in the incidence of LY island wide. This was particularly noticeable in pockets near the coast where high levels of LY mortality occurred in stands of the Malayan Dwarf and Maypan.
Other palm/plant hosts - None confirmed
New hosts, new vectors, new strains or
suspected loss of resistance - Based on available data, it
seems possible that in Jamaica there may be phytoplasmas capable of
overcoming the resistance of the Malayan Dwarf and its
Research projects - After the 1961 outbreak, coconut varieties from many major coconut producing areas (except Indonesia or the Philippines) were introduced and screened for LY resistance (see Bibliography).
Rehabilitation/replanting programmes -
The Malayan Dwarf emerged as the variety with the highest resistance
and it and its F1 hybrid with the Panama Tall, the Maypan, gradually
superseded the LY susceptible Jamaica Tall, which had been the main
variety for commerce. By the early 1980s, as a result of various
programmes implemented by the Coconut Industry Board, extensive
replanting had been achieved and LY was confined largely to Jamaica
Talls and hybrids of uncertain parentage (see
Economic importance/threat - LY continues to rapidly destroy palms of all varieties and is still seen as a major threat to the coconut industry.
This page is under continuous review. If you have an idea or an opinion to improve the contents of the page or the site, tell the editor. If you disagree with anything, say so. If you don't see or get a satisfactory response in a reasonable time contact other participants. At all time keep in contact with other individuals; this site is not a substitute for person to person contact.
Go back one page
Go to CICLY main page
Return to Top